Dr. Jensen Anesthesiology & Pain Board P.R.E.P.
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Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame

The Board PREP Hall of Fame includes some of the most contributory members of our great specialty. They're selected based upon their achievements and accomplishments as well as personal traits and attributes. The number of inductees each year is limited. Death is not a requirement for inclusion into the Hall but currently none of the members is living. Nominations come from the Ranger Force itself, with the final decision resting with the Commander.

It's been said that, "We learn history not to know how to behave or how to succeed but to know who we are." You don't need to know about these famous anesthesiologists to intubate a patient, push pentathal, administer volatile anesthetics, float a PA catheter, manage a ventilator, or read a blood gas. You don't need to know about them to pass Boards, either, since it's been many years since history was tested. If I had any say, it would tested. We often live lonely professional lives and being an anesthesiologist is more interesting and fun knowing our colorful history, knowing who we are.


John Adriani, M.D. (1907-88)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2015

Dr. John Adriani trained under Emery Rovenstine at Bellevue and moved to New Orleans in 1941 to direct the anesthesia program at Charity Hospital. He never left. His book, Pharmacology of Anesthetic Drugs, achieved widespread acclaim and distribution. He was Chairman of the Council on Drugs of the American Medical Society, president of the Southern Society of Anesthesiologists, and director of the American Board of Anesthesiologists. He was the fifth recipient of the Distinguished Service Award of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "John Adriani, M.D.", 6: 4, October, 1988)
Virginia Apgar, M.D. (1909-74)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2014
Dr. Virginia Apgar is probably the most famous anesthesiologist in the history of the specialty. One and five minute Apgar scores are standard of care in hospitals throughout the world. Apgar is only the second anesthesiologist to be honored with a U.S. stamp (1993), the first being Dr. Crawford Long (1940). Apgar's father stimulated her interest in science, introducing her to a microscope and a basement chemistry lab at an early age. Her family was not wealthy and she funded college by catching cats for the zoology lab. She entered Columbia's College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1929, having been rejected from Harvard Medical School, her first choice, probably on the basis of sex. Harvard did not admit its first woman until 1945. Apgar began in surgery but switched to anesthesia after two years of training. After Columbia, she trained for six months with Ralph Waters at Wisconsin and six months with Emory Rovenstine at Bellevue, returning to Columbia as Director of the Division of Anesthesia in 1938. In response to a medical student question one morning in the cafeteria regarding assessment of newborns, she picked up a folded card reading "Please bus your own trays" and wrote out what became the APGAR score. The system was designed to determine which babies needed resuscitation. Later studies by Apgar and colleagues demonstrated that hypoxia and acidosis were not normal at birth--as had been thought. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Stamp to be Released Honoring Dr. Virginia Apgar", 12: 3 (4-5), July, 1994)
Julia Arrowood, M.D. (1900-1984)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2013
Dr. Julia Arrowood was probably the first woman anesthesia resident (1935) and first woman staff member of the Massachusetts General Hospital (1936). She was also the first woman president of the New England Society of Anesthesiologists (1944-45). Dr. Arrowood received her medical degree from Boston University in 1933. She began her training at Belmont Hospital in Worchester but transferred after a short time to the MGH. She was an excellent clinician and was responsible for some of the earliest reports on pheochromocytoma. She was also interested in spinal and epidural anesthesia and was among the first to report upon the treatment of spinal headache. The road of pioneers is never easy. Julia Arrowood, M.D., was a physician pioneer. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Unsung Heroines of Anesthesiology: Doctors Isabella Herb, Julia Arrowood and Margo Deming", 12: 1&2, January and April, 1994)
John Joseph Bonica, M.D. (1917-94)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2012
Dr. John J. Bonica contributed significantly to our specialty in scientific, clinical and organizational ways. Bonica was born on a small island off the coast of Sicily. His family emigrated to the United States after his father recognized that Mussolini would likely plunge Italy into war: "Mussolini will not get my son!". Five years after arriving in New York, the elder Bonica died and it appeared doubtful that John would reach his lifetime goal of becoming a physician. To support himself, he developed his natural skill at wrestling and became a skilled amateur and professional. In 1941, he was the light heavyweight champion of the world. So as not to jeopardize his medical school education, he wrestled as "The Masked Marvel" during these years. Summer found him wrestling as a strong man at carnivals, taking on "all comers regardless of size"--35 on one particular day. Bonica graduated AOA from Marquette University and trained at St. Vincent's Hospital in New York City. His interest and influence in the study of pain management spanned over 40 years and was especially profound. Following military service, Bonica established the first training program in anesthesiology in the state of Washington at Tacoma General and later the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Washington School of Medicine. He authored 18 books, including The Management of Pain and Principles and Practice of Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "John J. Bonica, M.D.", 13: 2, April, 1995)
Wesley Bourne, M.D. (1886-1965)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2011
Dr. Wesley Bourne had an abiding dedication to the growth of anesthesia as a specialty. His excitement for anesthesia was palpable--in the operating room and classroom. His accomplishments were many: organizer of the Canadian Society of Anaesthetists (1920); President of the International Anesthesia Research Society (1925, 40); President of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (only foreigner to be so honored) (1942); first Chairman of the Department of Anaesthesia at McGill University (1945). In his collected essays, "Mysterious Waters to Guard" one quote stands out for the Ranger: "Although it is not given to us to know the whole truth, we do know that the secret of all learning lies in the passion for the search, and we shall do well to remember the warning of Horace, 'Life grants no boon to men without much toil.' (Anesthesia History Association Newletter, "The Great Triumvirate", 5: 2 (1, 11), April, 1987)
Burnell R. Brown, M.D., (1933-1995)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2015
Internationally known researcher Burnell R. Brown was the founding head of the University of Arizona Department of Anesthesiology. He died from cancer in 1995 at age 62. Brown earned his M.D. from Tulane University (1958) and completed his residency in anesthesiology at Parkland Hospital in Dallas, Texas. Following three years in the Army Medical Corps, he earned a Ph.D. in the area of drug biotransformation with a special interest in inhalation anesthetic-related hepatotoxicity (1969). In 1971, at age 37, he became the first chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Arizona. He continued in this capacity for twenty-three years, building a residency program with a strong academic and research foundation. Brown authored more than a dozen books and was Editor for several years of Survey of Anesthesiology. Dr. Brown was known for his vigor, zest for life, and wide-ranging interests. (Frink, Edward. Survey of Anesthesiology, 39:2, 77)
Thomas Drysdale Buchanan, M.D. (1876-1940)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2013
Dr. Thomas Drysdale Buchanan was the first President of American Board of Anesthesiology and holder of Certificate #1. He graduated from the New York Homeopathic Medical College in 1897 (one of a class of seventeen) and became professor of anesthesia in 1904. He held several important positions, including Clinical Professor of Anesthesia at Columbia, but it was his support and promotion of the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the American Board of Anesthesia which were his most notable achievements. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Thomas Drysdale Buchanan", 9: 1, January, 1991)
Benjamin G. Covino, M.D. (1931-91)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2014
Dr. Benjamin G. Covino died suddenly at age 60 while Chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. He was an internationally recognized expert in local anesthetics and performed pioneering work on the effects of these agents upon the heart. He was second editor-in-chief of Regional Anesthesia (1982-86). Covino's path to anesthesia was circuitous. He obtained an A.B. from Holy Cross, a M.S. from Boston College, a Ph.D. from Boston University, and his medical degree from the University of Buffalo School of Medicine. In 1962, he joined Astra where he spent over a decade as a researcher and vice-president of scientific affairs. He became interested in anesthesia and completed residency training at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 1974-77, whereupon he joined the faculty of the University of Massachusetts. In 1979, he became first chairman of the Department of the Anesthesiology at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. In this capacity, he successfully merged three prominent departments (the Peter Bent Brigham, the Robert Breck Brigham, and the Boston Hospital for Women). His bibliography includes more than 160 papers and four books. (Lema MJ, VanDam L. Benjamin G. Covino, Ph.D., M.D. Regional Anesthesia, 16: 125-126, 1991)
Stewart Chester Cullen, M.D. (1909-79)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2011
Dr. Stewart Chester Cullen trained at Bellevue under Rovenstine in the mid-1930s when the future of anesthesia as a specialty was unclear. When he completed his training in October, 1938 he became Chairman of the University of Iowa and subsequently at UCSF. Like Waters and Rovenstine, Cullen's mission was to promote the specialty, primarily by recruiting physicians and training teachers, researchers, and clinicians. Robert Virtue, Virgil Stoelting, and William Hamilton were among Cullen's residents. He was on the editorial board of Anesthesiology, an early member of the Residency Review Committee in Anesthesiology, and a director of the American Board of Anesthesiology. Over 25% of his residents remained in academic practice, especially critical at that time. Stewart Cullen was a true academician--one of the first and best in anesthesiology--but is still fondly remembered for his openness, warmth, and integrity. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Stuart C. Cullen, M.D.", 6: 3, July, 1988)
Harvey William Cushing, M.D. (1869-1939)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2015
Harvey Cushing, M.D. administered ether anesthesia as a second year medical student. Although he later became a famous neurosurgeon, a patient died under the care of anesthetist Cushing probably secondary to anesthetic overdose and this painful experience convinced him of the need for systematic monitoring during anesthesia and surgery. He teamed with Amory Codman to develop a system of monitoring of pulse and respirations during anesthesia--the first anesthetic record. Later, after seeing the Riva-Rocci "pneumatic device" for recording blood pressure in Italy, he included blood pressure monitoring on his "Ether Chart". (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Harvey Cushing, M.D.", 7: 3, July, 1989)
Robert Dunning Dripps, M.D. (1911-1973)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2014
Dr. Robert Dunning Dripps graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School and prepared for a career in internal medicine by emphasizing pharmacology in his studies. His talents were recognized by Julius Comroe, a renowned pharmacologist, and later I.S. Ravdin, chairman of the Department of Surgery, and under their influence he came to appreciate the merits and opportunities in anesthesiology. Following training with Dr. Ralph Waters at the University of Wisconsin in 1941, he became Assistant Physician Anesthetist at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Under Dripps leadership and with Ravdin's support, anesthesia grew from a division of surgery to a separate department, over which he served as chairman for 23 years. More than 300 residents trained under Dripps and 17 became departmental chairman. Two of his residents eventually served as editors of Anesthesiology, James Eckenhoff and Leroy Vandam. Dripps served as president of the Pennsylvania State Society of Anesthesiologists, the Association of University Anesthetists, and the American Board of Anesthesiologists. (Wollman, H. Robert Dunning Dripps, 1911-1973, Anesthesiology 40:2, February, 1974)
James Edward Eckenhoff, M.D. (1915-96)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2012
James Edward Eckenhoff, M.D. was a major author, teacher, and leader in American anesthesiology. His career began at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 after he witnessed the need for trained anesthesiologists on the battlefield in World War II. He rose to Professor and Vice-Chairman at Pennsylvania and left in 1966 to create and chair the Department of Anesthesiology at Northwestern University. In 1970, he was appointed Dean of the Medical School, a position he held until 1983. He remained very active in academic anesthesiology and was a Director (1965-73) and President (1973) of the American Board of Anesthesiology. He authored or edited seven books and over 120 articles. Introduction to Anesthesia, one of his textbooks, continues to be among the finest introductory texts. By all accounts, Eckenhoff was a scholarly, quiet, courteous, and beloved physician.
Harold Randolf Griffith, M.D. (1894-1985)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2013
Dr. Harold Randolf Griffith introduced the use of curare to anesthetic practice. This greatly facilitated endotracheal intubation, lighter states of anesthesia, and added to the safety of numerous surgical procedures. Griffith was Chief Anesthetist of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Montreal. He helped organize a teaching program for military anesthesia providers during WW II, was instrumental in establishing the McGill Diploma Course in Anesthesia and the Anesthesia Society of Canada, and started the first postoperative recovery room (1943) and first intensive care unit (1961) in Canada. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, History of Anesthesia in Stamps, 9: 3, July, 1991)
Arthur Ernest Guedel, M.D. (1883-1956)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2010
Dr. Arthur Ernest Guedel received his medical degree at Indiana University (1908). He administered anesthesia during WW I and returned to private practice in Indianapolis and as a lecturer in anesthesia at his alma mater. He was a contemporary and friend of Ralph Waters. Guedel's interests were wide ranging and included issues of uptake and distribution, carbon dioxide-oxygen anesthesia, and volatile anesthetic metabolism. In the 1920s, he moved to Pasadena and became Clinical Professor of Anesthesia at the University of Southern California and staff anesthesiologist at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Los Angeles. The Authur Guedel Memorial Anesthesia Center in San Francisco is a tribute to the high esteem in which he was held by his patients and colleagues. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Recollections of Arthur E. Guedel", 12: 3, July, 1994)
Isabella Herb, M.D. (1869-1943)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2014
Dr. Isabella Herb probably authored the first article on anesthesia by a woman (1898) and was the first woman president of a national anesthesia organization, serving as tenth president of the American Association of Anesthetists. She graduated from the Women's Medical College of Northwestern University in Chicago (1892) and may have become interested in anesthesia following the death of her husband after an accident and possibly from an anesthetic complication. She joined the staff of the Mayo Clinic in its infancy, where she was the first physician anesthesiologist. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Unsung Heroines of Anesthesiology: Doctors Isabella Herb, Julia Arrowood and Margo Deming", 12: 1&2, January and April, 1994)
Dennis Emerson Jackson, M.D. (1878-1980)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2013
As a medical student at Rush, Dr. Dennis E. Jackson saw the need for a less expensive method of using nitrous oxide and oxygen. After beginning his first job in St. Louis, he constructed a circle carbon dioxide absorption apparatus for nitrous oxide-oxygen anesthesia. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to absorb CO2 and sulfuric acid to remove excess moisture. A pump circulated gases and one way valves were utilized. Jackson soon removed the valves. In 1918, he offered a portable circle carbon dioxide absorption machine to the US Army. Acceptance of his circuit and the ideas underlying it was slow and not helped because Jackson was a pharmacologist, rather than a clinical anesthesiologist. Jackson was also well ahead of this time in his understanding of mechanical ventilation and the role it was to play. Jackson possessed an innovative, inquisitive mind and was instrumental in the formation of the International Anesthesia Research Society. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Unsung Heroes of Anesthesia: Dennis E. Jackson, William B. Neff, and Robert A. Hingson", 12: 4, October, 1994)
Marion Thomas "Pepper" Jenkins, M.D. (1917-1994)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2015
Dr. M.T. "Pepper" Jenkins was McDermott Professor and Chairman of Anesthesiology at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas from 1948-81. He was President of the ASA in 1972 and received its Distinguished Service Award. Dr. Jenkins was also active as a Trustee of the Wood Library Museum of Anesthesiology and in 1993 presented a memorable lecture entitled, "Epochs in intravenous fluid therapy: From the goose quill and pig bladder to balanced salt solutions". The lecture reflected his lifelong interest in fluid resuscitation. Dr. Jenkins was actively involved in efforts to preserve the life of President John F. Kennedy following his assassination in Dallas on November 22, 1963. Pepper Jenkins passed away in 1994. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "M.T. "Pepper" Jenkins, M.D.", 13: 1, January, 1995)
Morton Digby Leigh, M.D. (1904-75)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2012
Dr. Digby Leigh trained in anesthesia at McGill University in Montreal under Wesley Bourne and Harold Griffith. In 1935, he left Canada for Madison, Wisconsin and additional training in pediatric anesthesia with Dr. Ralph Waters. At this time, infants and children were regarded as small adults with few special needs. Three years later, when Leigh returned to Canada to become Chief of the Children's Memorial Hospital (today Montreal Children's Hospital) this began to change. Leigh was instrumental in the development of pediatric anesthesia. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "History of Pediatric Anesthesia in Canada", 11: 3, July, 1993)
Crawford Williamson Long, M.D. (1815-78)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2014
Dr. Crawford W. Long claimed to successfully and painlessly remove a tumor from the neck under ether anesthesia on March 30, 1842--the first physician to do so. Long graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, studied further to be a surgeon in New York and returned to Jefferson, Georgia in 1841. His famous operation was performed on a friend, James Venable. Controversy surrounds this event as it was not until 1849, three years after Morton's successful anesthetic in the ether dome of the Massachusetts General Hospital, that Long came forth to claim credit for what he had done. A monument of Long sits in Statuary Hall of the United States Capitol. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Dr. Crawford W. Long", 4: 2 (8), April, 1986)
John Silas Lundy, M.D. (1894-1973)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2015
Drs. John S. Lundy and Ralph Waters were the leading anesthesiologists of their time. Lundy, the son of a pioneer physician, graduated from medical school at the University of Chicago in 1920. From 1920-24 he practiced anesthesiology in Seattle until he met Dr. William Mayo, who recruited him to the Mayo Clinic. There he founded and directed the Clinic's section of anesthesiology. On June 18, 1934, Lundy introduced sodium pentothal as an intravenous anesthetic agent. He coined the term "balanced anesthesia". In 1942, he opened the first post-anesthesia recovery room in the world. He was President of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (1946) and was a founding member of the American Board of Anesthesiology (1940). He was known as being a very difficult, even frightening examiner. Lundy's major contribution to the advancement of our specialty was his leadership in the national organization of anesthesia. In the face of opposition and even hostility from surgeons and hospital administrators, he recognized the need for well-organized local and national anesthesia societies. With Dr. Paul Wood, Lundy convinced the New York Society of Anesthesiologists to become the nucleus for a national organization, the American Society of Anesthesiologists. He also was instrumental in personally financing the journal of the ASA, Anesthesiology, at a time when the House of Delegates refused to provide funds. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "John S. Lundy-A Festschrift", 5: 4 (1, 4-9), October, 1987)
Robert Reynolds Macintosh, M.D. (1897-1989)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2012
Sir Robert Macintosh was a giant of our specialty. Following distinguished service in the Royal Flying Service during WW I, Macintosh began training at Guy's Hospital in London. He developed an interest in anesthesia and he eventually became the first Professor of Anaesthetics at the Nuffield Institute at Oxford University. He was a teacher, researcher, writer, and leader of great renown. He traveled to virtually every country in the world teaching the basic tenants of anesthesia. He was instrumental in the development of the Oxford and EMO vaporizers and the Macintosh laryngoscope (1943), probably the most widely used in the world. As a teacher, he was noted for his simplicity and clarity. As an author, his books (particularly Physics for the Anaesthetist, Local Anesthesia: Brachial Plexus, and Lumbar Puncture and Spinal Anesthesia) were very influential. Despite his many accomplishments, Macintosh was known for his modesty and lack of pretense. He enjoyed good health and great longevity. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Sir Robert Macintosh", 9: 1, January, 1991)
Sir Ivan Whiteside McGill, M.D. (1888-1986)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2013
During WW I, Dr. Ivan McGill, a general duty medical officer, was sent by the British Army to the maxillo-facial trauma unit near London. The existing technique of insufflation of ether and oxygen through narrow tubes proved inadequate and this led McGill and his colleague Stanley Rowbotham to introduce wide bore tubes utilizing nitrous oxide, oxygen, and ether. Between 1919-32, they developed techniques still used for endotracheal and endobronchial anesthesia in the setting of maxillo-facial and thoracic surgery. McGill introduced the blind nasal intubation in 1928 and the Mapleson A system in 1932. He was considered pre-eminent in thoracic anesthesia. He became a commander of the Victorian Order in 1946 and Knight of the Order in 1960. Sir Ivan was extremely fit. He lived independently until well into his 90s and died at the age of 98. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "The Development of the Nitrous Oxide-Oxygen Apparatus", 10: 1, January, 1992)
John D. (Jack) Michenfelder (1931-2004)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2014
A pioneering neuroanesthesiologist, John D. Michenfelder, passed away at the age of 73 on May 2, 2004. Michenfelder's major contributions were in the areas of detection, prevention, and treatment of air embolism, factors governing cerebral blood flow, and anesthetic effects upon cerebral metabolism. In a long and distinguished career, Michenfelder was awarded every major honor bestowed by the American Society of Anesthesiologists as well as many others.

Born in St. Louis in 1931, Michenfelder completed medical school at St. Louis University in 1955. Following an internship and partial residency in internal medicine at Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago, he served for two years in the United States Navy. In 1958, he began residency in anesthesiology at the Mayo Clinic. He never left. He joined the faculty in 1961 and soon began pioneering work in neuroanesthesia. He served as director of the Division of Neuroanesthesia for more than a decade and was the recipient of two National Institutes of Health grants which ran from 1966-93. His research efforts were primarily directed at better understanding anesthetic effects upon cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

Michenfelder served as Editor-in-Chief of Anesthesiology (1979-85), was on the editorial board of seven other journals, and authored 190 scientific publications, including two books. Other honors included election to F.F.A.R.C.S., Ireland (1982) and F.F.A.R.C.S., England (1988); presentation of the 27th Emery A. Rovenstine Memorial Lecture (1988); recipient of the ASA's Excellence in Research Award (1990) and its Distinguished Service Award (1991); recipient of the Anesthesia Foundation's Best Book Award (1991); and election to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences (1990).

A pioneer in neuroanesthesia, winner of every major ASA award, giant of our specialty, and now an inductee into the anesthesiahistory.com Hall of Fame-John D. (Jack) Michenfelder. (Ref: Warner, Mark A., ASA Newletter, 68: 7, 2004)

William Thomas Green Morton, D.D.S. (1819-1868)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2015
On October 16, 1846, Dr. William Thomas Green Morton, a dentist, anesthetized Edward Gilbert Abbott with ether while Dr. John Warren excised a tumor from the left side of the face and jaw. After surgery, Abbott opened his eyes and said, "I have experienced no pain." This first public demonstration of ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hospital was immediately and widely reported throughout the world as the era of surgical anesthesia began. Morton was born in Charlton, Massachusetts in 1819 and attended the College of Dental Surgery for two years. He practiced dentistry with Horace Wells, with whom he administered nitrous oxide for tooth extraction. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Dr. William Thomas Green Morton, 6: 4, 1988)
Emery ("Rovy") Rovenstine, M.D. (1895-1960)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2011
Dr. Emery Andrew ("Rovy") Rovenstine was a general practitioner and self-trained anesthetist in Indiana who was distressed at inducing anoxic periods to produce neuromuscular relaxation. When he heard that Dr. Ralph Waters believed that such periods should be avoided, he decided to take a few weeks off and travel to Wisconsin to learn Waters' techniques. As a result of this visit he closed his office and joined the staff in Wisconsin, becoming Waters' first assistant and remaining there for several years until he was invited to become Professor and Chairman at New York University and Bellevue Hospital. His influence in this capacity to inspire other teachers eventually approached that of his mentor, the great Dr. Waters. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "The Wisconsin-California Connection", 4: 3 (1, 6-7) July, 1986)
James Young Simpson, M.D. (1811-1870)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2012
On January 19, 1847, Sir James Young Simpson of Edinburgh first administered a volatile anesthetic, ether, to an obstetric patient to relieve the pain of childbirth. On November 8, he utilized chloroform for the same purpose. Prior to this, obstetric pain management was very crude and physicians were not generally involved unless problems arose. On April 7, 1847, the first obstetric anesthetic in the United States was administered to Fanny Appleton Longfellow, wife of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, by Nathan Cooley Keep, M.D. Dr. Keep, a prominent physician and first Dean of Dentistry at Harvard, administered ether and mother and child did well. (American Society of Anesthesiologists Newsletter, "Fanny Longfellow and Nathan Keep", 61: 9, September, 1997)
Scott Meadows Smith, M.D.
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2013
Dr. Scott Meadows Smith was my father's favorite anesthesiologist. I met him one day while assisting Dad and it was on this occasion that my interest in anesthesia began. Dr. Smith was very friendly, enthusiastic, and happy. He loved administering anesthesia. But these personal recollections are not the only reasons Dr. Smith is recognized and honored here. His accomplishments were many. He was the first anesthesiologist in Utah and the first Professor of Anesthesiology at the University of Utah (1943). He started the training program there in 1946. In January, 1945, he was involved in one of the most classic human research studies ever recorded when he allowed himself to be totally paralyzed with the South American Indian poison curare to determine its effects and ascertain influences upon cognitive function. He was the only Utah anesthesiologist ever to serve as President of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Beyond these honors, Dr. Smith was an excellent clinician, in private practice at L.D.S. Hospital for almost 40 years. He loved being an anesthesiologist and was highly respected by all that had contact with him. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Scott M. Smith", 5: 2, April, 1987)
John Snow, M.D. (1813-1858)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2012
Dr. John Snow was instrumental in the acceptance of analgesia for labor. On April 7, 1853, Snow administered chloroform to Queen Victoria of England for childbirth in Buckingham Palace. There were no complications and the Queen voiced appreciation for "that blessed chloroform". While difficult to understand today, there was considerable opposition to anesthesia and to analgesia for labor at that time. Many believed that labor pain represented God's punishment to women for tempting Adam's fall. Snow administered over 4,000 chloroform anesthetics to women in labor with only one significant complication, greatly supporting the efficacy and safety of the technique. (American Society of Anesthesiologists Newsletter, "Analgesia in Labor Becomes Respectable: The Role of John Snow", 61: 9, September, 1997)
H.J.C. (Jeremy) Swan (1914 - 2005)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2011
Described as the "perfect scientific cardiologist and compassionate physician", chairman emeritus of the Division of Cardiology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, inventor of the Swan-Ganz catheter, prolific author, brilliant researcher, and winner of virtually every honor in his field H.J.C. (Jeremy) Swan died February 7, 2005 in Los Angeles, California.

Swan's seminal achievement, which fundamentally altered the care of the critically ill, was the development of a flow directed, balloon tipped catheter which allows for bedside determination of cardiac output and other critical hemodynamic parameters. The idea came to him while he watched the sail of a boat on Santa Monica Bay. Swan's insight came to a prepared mind. As a cardiologist in the 1960's, he had been involved in pioneering studies related to cardiac angiography. However, he realized angiography alone was unlikely to provide the kind of real-time, bedside hemodynamic information most helpful to the care of critically ill patients.

Swan received his medical degree and a Ph.D from the University of London and was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. He emigrated to the U.S. from Ireland in 1951 to join the Division of Cardiology at the Mayo Clinic, became director of the cardiac catheterization laboratory at age 37, and made many innovative contributions. He was named chairman of cardiology at Cedars-Sinai in 1965 and served until 1987. He served as president of the American College of Cardiology and was awarded the Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award. He also received the James B. Herrick Award from the American Heart Association.

John Heath Tinker, M.D. (1941 - )
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2015
It would be hard to imagine many resumes better than that of Top 5 Mentor John Heath Tinker. Born May 18, 1941 in Cincinnati, Ohio he graduated 13th in his high school class of 450. At the University of Cincinnati he concentrated in mechanical and aerospace engineering for 3 years and was on full tuition scholarship, whereupon he switched to pre-medicine and graduated Phi Beta Kappa and Magna Cum Laude (high honors) in 1964. He served his country, and was commissioned 2nd Lt. US Army (ROTC) and earned a distinguished military graduate distinction. He attended medical school at the University of Cincinnati, again on a full scholarship, where he graduated in 1968 summa cum laude (1st in his class) and presented the valedictorian address. He was also AOA and class president his sophomore, junior, and senior years, and was elected each year by larger margins. He did his internship and one year of residency in surgery at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital of Harvard Medical School in 1968-70 under Dr. Francis D. Moore. He switched to Anesthesiology under Dr. Leroy D. Vandam, finishing in 1972. He was Chief of Anesthesia and Operative Services at Fort Campbell Military Hospital for the 101st Airborne Division and rose to become a Major in the US Army Medical Corps. At the Mayo Clinic and Mayo Medical School (1974-83) he rose from instructor to associate professor and Chief of Cardiovascular Anesthesia (1978-83). In 1983-97 he served as Professor and Chairman of the Department of Anesthesia at the University of Iowa College of Medicine. He then went to the University of Nebraska College of Medicine in the same role for another decade. At the time of his retirement in June, 2008, he was the longest continuously serving chairman in the United States. He authored or co-authored over 300 academic papers, many seminal contributions.

Mentors must lead and leadership requires the courage of those willing to swim against the tide. John Heath Tinker was such a leader. In 1986, he brought me to the University of Iowa and for over a decade encouraged and mentored me in countless ways to reach my potential. I will forever be indebted to this great and accomplished man. Some of the highest praise I have ever received was being told by him that he is proud of me.

Ralph Moore Tovell, M.D. (1901-67)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2014
Dr. Ralph Moore Tovell had an outstanding career. He was trained in Canada and in 1929 became an assistant anesthesiologist at the Mayo Clinic. In 1936, he was appointed Chief of Anesthesia of Hartford Hospital. The following year he established a training program, which has run continuously since. Tovell was instrumental in the formation of the American Board of Anesthesiology (April 8, 1938) and later became its president (1947). The first Board consisted of the following members: John Lundy, Charles, McCuskey, Emory Rovenstine, Henry Ruth, H. Boyd Stewart, Ralph Tovell, Paul Wood, and Philip Woodbridge. In 1940, he became a member of the first editorial board of Anesthesiology and later became its editor. In 1941, he was elected President of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. He was active in the defense of his country during WW II and as a Colonel served 41 months in Europe, primarily identifying deficiencies and helping to standardize the training of anesthesia providers as well as addressing problems related to anesthesia for major surgery on the battlefield. He was asked to investigate conditions in the concentration camps following liberation and concluded, "The capacity for man's inhumanity to man is infinite." Following the war, he returned to Hartford Hospital as Chairman. He served for many years, continuing to significantly contribute on a local and national level to the advancement of our specialty. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Ralph Moore Tovell, M.D." 7: 3, July, 1989)
Horace Wells, D.D.S. (1815-48)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2012
Dr. Horace Wells, a dentist in Boston and Hartford, was a father of inhalation anesthesia. On December 11, 1844, he used nitrous oxide on himself as Dr. JM Riggs extracted a molar tooth. Wells subsequently anesthetized 15 additional patients for this procedure, whereupon he was invited to the Massachusetts General Hospital by Professor John Warren to demonstrate his innovation. When it failed, he was branded a swindler. Two years later, William Morton, a mentee, colleague, and friend returned to the MGH and successfully demonstrated ether anesthesia. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "Wells or Morton: A Letter from G.Q. Colton", 5: 1, January, 1987)
Ralph Milton Waters, M.D. (1883-1979)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2011
Dr. Ralph Waters has few peers in his influence upon modern anesthesiology. After ten years in private practice in Sioux City, Iowa Waters joined the medical faculty at the University of Wisconsin (1927). There he established the first academic training program in anesthesiology and in less than a decade it was pre-eminent in the world. Waters was the first professor of anesthesia in the world (1933), President of the American Board of Anesthesiology (1939), and President of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (1945). Waters, "The Chief", felt that teaching resulted a natural consequence of patient care. Two thirds of Waters' residents devoted at least part of their professional lives to teaching and half of these served as chairmen or directors of teaching programs in medical schools, including Virginia Apgar and Emery Rovenstine. (Anesthesia History Association Newsletter, "The Wisconsin-California Connection", 4: 3 (1, 6-7) July, 1986)
Paul Meyer Wood, M.D., (1894-1963)
Induction Ranger Board PREP Hall of Fame: 2013
Paul Meyer Wood was a busy and very productive anesthesiologist who distinguished himself for his interest in the roots of our specialty. He was an active staff member in 20 hospitals and a consultant in 20 more. He was secretary of the New York Society of Anesthesiologists from 1930-44, which became the American Society of Anesthesiologists in 1945. He was a founding member of the American Board of Anesthesiology, its Secretary-Treasurer from 1937-38, and its President in 1948. He was the business manager of Anesthesiology from its inception in 1939 to 1944. He received the distinguished service award from the American Society of Anesthesiologists in 1945. He was the founder and curator of the Wood Library-Museum of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Paul Wood was born in Frankfort, Indiana, where his father was a schoolteacher. He graduated from South Bend High School and entered Notre Dame but finished his B.S. at Columbia in 1917. He started medical school at Columbia but left to command an ambulance unit in Italy in WW I. He returned to finish medical school after winning several medals for valor and graduated in 1922. He spent two years at Roosevelt Hospital where he was trained in anesthesia by Thomas Buchanan and James Gwathmey. He became Junior Attending Anesthetist at Roosevelt in 1925. In his late 30s, he was stricken with what was believed to be coronary thrombosis and during his recovery conceived of a permanent library for anesthesia. The library grew steadily under his care and after several moves became the Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology, sponsored by the American Society of Anesthesiologists. (Betcher, Albert. Anesthesiology, 24: 5, 612-14)

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